Schizophrenia is a tough disorder that makes the patient can not distinguish what is real and what is unreal. The disease interferes with clear thinking, managing emotions, referring to others or normal functioning.
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects the way a person behaves, thinks and perceives the world. Individuals with schizophrenia often have altered the perception of reality. It happens that they see or hear things that do not exist, speak in foreign languages or in a misleading manner they believe that others are trying to harm them, they feel watched. There are some occasions in which schizophrenics withdraw completely from the outside world or act in fear.
The symptoms of schizophrenia
In some people, this disease occurs suddenly and entirely without warning. However, in most cases, it gives some subtle warning signs before they take on, the most severe form.
Among the early symptoms of schizophrenia are worth mentioning:
- social withdrawal,
- hostility and suspicion,
- deterioration of personal hygiene,
- blank stare without expression,
- difficulty in expressing feelings, including the inability to cry or a problem with the expression of joy,
- strange laugh and cry,
- insomnia or hypersomnia,
- strange feeling,
- difficulty concentrating, absentmindedness
- extreme reactions to criticism,
- unusual use of words and way of speaking.
This warning does not necessarily imply schizophrenia because it could mean other problems. Is worth, however, to consult it with your doctor.
Symptoms may, however, vary considerably depending on the person, and the severity of the disease. Not everyone will have all schizophrenic symptoms, and they may also change over time.
Delusions – a delusion that actively interfere in mind, so the patient despite the clear and obvious evidence does not want to believe in their truth. Delusions are extremely common in schizophrenia as it occurs in 90% of patients with impaired. Often they manifest themselves as bizarre and illogical ideas or fantasies. Delusional can be distinguished as follows:
- delusions of persecution – the belief that others (“they”) want to hurt the patient in some way,
- delusions of reference – the neutral events, are considered by the patient as a unique and personal significance,
- delusions of grandeur – the belief that the patient is known or famous figure, or have extraordinary powers,
- delusions of control – the belief that thoughts and actions of the patient controlled force from outside or alien.
Hallucinations – these are the sounds or other sensations experienced as true because there are only in the mind of a sick person. Hallucinations may include any of the five senses, but in the case of schizophrenia, the most common are the auditory and visual.
Schizophrenic hallucinations are usually speaking to someone who is not around. Very often people have knowledge about it. Sometimes these are critical voices, vulgar or insulting. Hallucinations also may increase in people staying alone.
Speech disorders – related to the fragmentary thinking are characteristic of the disease. Sick people have problems with concentration and maintenance of thinking. Appear here loose associations, neologisms, perseveration, creating rhymes.
The so-called “negative” symptoms of schizophrenia, refer to the lack of healthy behavior in the patient. It is mainly the lack of emotional expression, lack of interest, enthusiasm, apparent lack of interest in the world and the difficulties and speech disorders.
The causes of schizophrenia
Genetics is a substantial contributing factor to the emergence of the disease, but not all people genetically predisposed, succumb to the disease. Regarding environmental factors, in turn, lead to it may:
- excessive stress, when there is an excess of cortisol in the body,
- prenatal exposure to viral infection.
- the low oxygen levels during labor (usually associated with prolonged labor or premature birth)
- exposure to the virus during infancy.
- early loss of parents
- the physical and sexual violence suffered in childhood,
- abnormal brain structure.
Diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia
Ignoring the symptoms of schizophrenia or incorrect treatment can have devastating consequences for both the patient and his entourage. The determination is carried out by a full psychiatric evaluation, medical history, physical examination and laboratory tests.
The treatment options for schizophrenia are very diverse, so it is possible to almost entirely keep under control the disease. Medication, therapy, and support of loved ones allow the patient to control symptoms, gain greater independence and to have a satisfying life.